The garden is going through a break period during the month of January due to winter temperatures. Often we wrongly think that there is nothing to do there. But January does not really mean a rest of the gardener. A lot of works remain to be done.
Although most of the plants are at rest in these cold days, you can enjoy the mild temperatures by planting the latest shrubs, roses and still cultivable fruit trees at this season. It is also possible, apart from periods of frost, to make some seeds, cuttings and sizes indoors.
In the Garden of ornament
Works to be performed in the garden of ornament in January
Take advantage of this decline in activity to freshen up the beauty of garden.
Quiet winter periods are a good opportunity to undertake the cutting of the ornamental plants and deciduous shrubs..
Prune the ivies, the creepers and other climbing plants that might otherwise invade your roof or your windows. You can also prune summer-flowering shrubs like hibiscus. Be sure to prune hedge bushes such as beeches or hornbeams.To promote its future bloom, cut also cut, the wisteria, you’ll repeat the operation in July. In the last fortnight of the month of January, you can start cutting the willows and dogwoods..
At this time of year, the soil often undergoes the scourge of the frost, and so it becomes difficult to till.
Yet apart from the periods of frost, it is possible to plant many many bare-root plants : you can plant trees and deciduous shrubs in root-balls or in container for example, roses or even other ornamental plants. Thus, you can plant an oak, tree or beeches.
Concerning the shrubs, you can plant hazels, camellias, and other conifers. It is also the right time to plant vines such as lianas or ivies, but also flowers that bloom in winter like primroses or pansies that will sublimate your garden by providing a flowery touch. You need to ensure that you plant bare-roots trees outside the periods of frost. In the presence of frost you can heel in these plants to protect them.
Alternatively, you can start right now to plant perennials that bloom in summer.
Think about planting hornbeams, this is the right time to plant them because they are plants that are cold-resistant.
In January, you can plant some perennials, for example you can sow pelargonium in a seed starter. You can also start to plant coleus which is to be transplanted a month after.
You can start your first cuttings of the year. We can perform the cuttings of: roses, artemisia, sagebrush, geranium, dogwoods, acanthus, calibras, willows, peony, lupin and poppy from the East.
Tips to help you achieve your cutting in January: you must keep them in a shaded place to protect them from the sun so that they will not dry out. You have to shelter your cuttings and protect them from the weather and too cold temperatures. You can also put the most fragile cuttings inside.
If it snowed, clear the snow that may break the branches. To do this, feel free to vigorously shake the least fragile trees and shrubs to remove the snow banks. Prune the trees to help them to be reformed, lop them off to remove dead branches, cut the wood. Do not forget to brush the tree trunks to eliminate the foam.
Collect leaves and turn them into compost. Remove the withered leaves of the trees, the dead foliage of perennials and clean up the flowerbeds such as hellebores by controlling the presence of black spots. Take care of the roses, spread compost on their foot.
Check the presence of weeds, pull them if they are present around your flower beds.
Concerning the protection, you need to protect perennials that are cold-sensitive in spreading mulch on the crown of the plants. For this, use a mulch of dead leaves or straw, which will make the uprooting easier if the ground is frozen. You also need to aerate the lawn, it is fragile in this winter period. It is advisable to avoid trampling it when it is frozen. If it freezes also adopt protection measures such as the heeling in the plants during periods of extreme cold.
If it does not freeze of course, if you haven’t started yet, protect your plants. Check that the protections of plants are already installed in place. Remove the saucers under pots, as the standing water can damage the roots of the plants.
You can start to prepare the ground for future plantations and the first seedlings. To do this, spread an organic compost, ideally from manure and seaweed, on your soil.
You can also tie your trees to avoid their deformation under the weight of snow.
In the fruit garden
Works to be done in the fruit garden in January
During the month of January, even if you have not much to do at the orchard because of the cold. You must still carry out a number of maintenance work.
In the orchard, you have to prune fruit trees and small fruits trees: currant bushes, blackcurrant, quinces, medlars, fall raspberries, hazel tree.
Yet, if it does not freeze, cut the pome fruit tree, such as apple trees and pear trees this month.
You can also prune the climbing fruit. In areas where the climate is mild, you can trim the almond trees and olive trees.
In the fruit orchard you can plant bare-root fruit trees : apple trees, peaches, pears, cherry in areas of mild climate, you can transplant olive trees.
You can multiply the hazel tree or small fruit bushes such as the redcurrants, raspberries or whether blackcurrant. You can also multiply the kiwi.
The month of January is a great month for the division of the rhubarb. To do this, start by creating a trench around the plant, cut sharply with a spade to make a division between two buds. Repeat for additional fragments. We keep the central part, on some pieces there are buds for re – building a foot of rhubarb. Take care then to cover the rhubarb with the protective glasses for an early harvest.
You can also prepare the seeds of apple that will give future apple trees in your garden.
As in the garden of ornamental, you need to ensure you clean up your trees by removing the old branches and the misplaced branches.
Brush your fruit trees to remove the foam. Fertilize raspberries using compost.
Remember to enrich the soil around your trees, the plant will be strengthened and will grow better. To do this, you can spread the compost around the edge of your fruit trees as a minimum 30 cm in diameter and 5 cm thick.
Check the condition of the fruit. Check and change the fasteners of the trained fruits that you have cut out beforehand.
In the greenhouse
Works to be performed under shelter in January
Shelter the strawberry plants growing in pots by putting them in the greenhouse. Inspect the bulbs in the greenhouse to control the presence of rot. It is important to re-pot also some flower bulbs. You have also to protect from the frost the bulb sprouts of spring such as snowdrops or tulip bulbs.
You should think about watering at least once in the month of January the perennials and annuals plants such as the geranium for example.
Of course, do not forget to water your plants in a greenhouse in the morning.
Pick up the dead leaves in the greenhouse and wilted leaves to preserve healthy plants of the contamination.
Prune fruit trees sheltered under greenhouse such as apricot trees, peach trees etc.
January is a good time to start the first seedling of vegetables in the garden and the summer flowers.
Under shelter (greenhouse or chassis), you can plant:
Early season carrot, rounded grains peas, spinach, beans, salad , cauliflower, cardoon, lettuces, batavia, radishes…
Concerning the flowers, you can plant the begonias and eyelets, begonias under warm shelter. You can also sow passionflower..
You can sow in a greenhouse the beauties of the night, the hollyhock roses or primroses to protect also them from from freezing. We can also start to plant summer flowers such as geraniums and petunia.
You can plant in a greenhouse flower bulbs like amaryllis or the achimenes.
Remember to air the greenhouse when the temperatures are mild and in sunny weather.
Remember to disinfect the pots and the stake.
It is essential not to forget to clean the inside and outside of the greenhouse windows to let in more light, essential to the life of your plants. If the snow fell eliminate the snow banks falling on the windows to let in the light.
Check the protections in the greenhouse. Heat the greenhouse during cold periods. To do this, control, on a daily basis the temperature of the greenhouse.
In the vegetable garden
Works to be performed in the vegetable garden in January
From mid-January, we can sow the first lettuces of spring. So this is the good time to do salad sowing in spring. You better make it inside, sheltered and stored in small containers for example or whether in the ground if you are patient! You can sow the” Queens of may”, the “Grenobloises”, the “Golden blonde”, the oak leaves and many other varieties of spring salads.
You can sow leeks in containers, the large-leafed golden purslane, turnips.
In warmer areas, in the south, for example we can already plant chicory, watercress, spinach, beans, peas, and short carrots. You can start the first seeds of cauliflowers whose harvest will perform 5 to 8 months later.
Concerning the plantation, it is still time to plant garlic in the ground, pink garlic it’s even the last possible time, you can also plant onion and gray shallot. You can also plant forced turnips or leeks under protection.
Cover the leeks, control your winter protection and chiefly your veil for wintering plants.
Work on the arrangement of the vegetable garden. You can cover the areas you want to grow in the spring, to prepare the ground to receive your future seedlings and plantations. Think about the rotations of crops in your garden design.
Also spread the compost on growing areas to enrich them. Feed and keep warm the ground in winter.
Think about the maintenance of your floor. For that purpose, you can proceed with application of compost to prepare the ground for the next seeding. You can also protect your vegetable garden for prevention in periods of great cold. To do this, feel free to put a mulch such as the mulch of dead leaves or straw.
Relieve the compaction of the ground and spread compost to prepare the ground.
As in the month of December, you can aerate the frame and control the tunnels, protecting glasses and winter protection.
Set up the overwintering veils to protect your vegetables.
Pick up the dead leaves falling on the ground as they can for example contain mushrooms.
Clean your garden by pulling the weeds that have developed.
There is not much to harvest in the garden due to the heavy frost but you can still harvest some varieties of vegetables.
You can harvest the endives, cabbages, curly salads, wild chicory, winter cabbages, cabbages of Brussels, the last harvests of spinach, scarole, endives, salsify.
You can also collect tubercular root vegetables such as leeks or Jerusalem artichokes by taking care of in the term-controling.
In the vegetable garden, don’t forget to relieve soil compaction in order to promote the penetration of water and enrich it with compost.
Other maintenance work
Other maintenance to be performed in January
Do an inventory of your vegetable seeds stock, and get your future grains and seeds.
If it freezes, introduce a pile of branches in the basin, this will keep the water in motion so that the basin does not freeze.
Feed the birds. Prepare for them cups of water because the pools are often frozen at this time of year.
Control the diseases and pests in all of your garden.
Prepare an asparagus patch for your future asparagus planting.
Disinfect and clean your tools, sharpen your tools.